Use the following template to create a valid Denying the Consequent argument example:
If_________________ then _______________
It is not the case that ______________________
Therefore, it is not the case that ________________
Use the following template to create a valid Affirming the Antecedent argument example:
In addition to if/then and either/or, there are other terms that, when used correctly, can create valid argument templates. Using the three deductive statements below, create five (5) valid deductive arguments. To make your life easier, you can use the key words at the end of the statement to fill in the template.
Statement A: Tuition increases 5 percent per academic year. (Tuition increases)
Statement B: I must graduate in no more than two years. (Graduate two years)
Statement C: I have legal access to unlimited amounts of cash. (Unlimited cash)
Example: For a template such as “Either A or B. Not A. Therefore B” you would answer: “Either tuition increases, or I graduate in two years. Tuition will not increase. Therefore, I will graduate in two years.” Do this for all five templates.
- Either A, B, or C. Not C. So, A or B.
- It is not the case that both A and B are true. So, either A is not true or B is not true.
- Neither B nor C is true. So, B is false.
- B unless C. Not B. So, C.
- A only if B. A. Therefore, B.
Check the Logical Strength of each argument you have written. If it lacks logical strength, check the table Grammatically Equivalent Structures (in Chapter 8) to be sure you are interpreting the words correctly.
A local newspaper serving a mid-sized U.S. city whose population is about 300,000 surveyed 40 retail businesses. Of the businesses surveyed, 70% said they were planning little or no hiring of extra workers during the coming Christmas season. The newspaper concluded that consumer spending would likely be down for Christmas this year, since retailers were not anticipating extra holiday business. Evaluate the newspaper’s generalization about consumer holiday spending using what you have learned in Chapter 9, including the four questions suggested by the text:
- Was the correct group sampled?
- Were the data obtained in an effective way?
- Were enough cases considered?
- Was the sample representatively structured?