Required Resources
Read/review the following resources for this activity:

  • Textbook: Chapter 8, 9
  • Lesson

The checkpoint quizzes are short assessments that will check your understanding of the terms and concepts from the reading.

Time limit: none
Attempts: 1

This quiz will be graded based on correctness of response.

Course Outcomes (CO): 3, 4, 5, 6

Due Date: By 11:59 p.m. MT on Sunday

Attempt History

Attempt Time Score
LATEST Attempt 1 369 minutes 50 out of 50
Score for this attempt: 50 out of 50
Submitted Mar 24 at 10:30am
This attempt took 369 minutes.

Question 1

/ 5 pts
Based on what you have read in the text, the lecture, and any other sources you find helpful to your understanding of deductive arguments, explain the structure of a deductive argument in your own words.

Your Answer:


Question 2

/ 5 pts
Go to the box “Deductive Reasoning” (in the beginning of Chapter 8). Read the last paragraph there. Based on that reading and any other sources you find helpful to your understanding, describe the part that “rules, operating conditions, core beliefs, values, policies, principles, procedures, and terminology” (p. 159) play in deductive arguments.

Your Answer:

Question 3

/ 2 pts
In the introduction to Chapter 8, the text sets forth a specific definition of the term “valid” as it applies to deductive arguments. What is that definition?

Your Answer:

Question 4

/ 2 pts

Use the following template to create a valid Denying the Consequent argument example:

If_________________ then _______________

It is not the case that ______________________

Therefore, it is not the case that ________________

Your Answer:

Question 5

2 / 2 pts

Use the following template to create a valid Affirming the Antecedent argument example:

If_______________ then____________


Therefore _______________________

Your Answer:


Question 6

/ 2 pts
Jack says: “I can enroll full time this semester, or I can buy a car. I think going to school full time is the better option for me, so I’ll have to put off buying car.” What name does the text give to this argument structure?

Your Answer:


Question 7

/ 5 pts

In addition to if/then and either/or, there are other terms that, when used correctly, can create valid argument templates. Using the three deductive statements below, create five (5) valid deductive arguments. To make your life easier, you can use the key words at the end of the statement to fill in the template.

Statement A: Tuition increases 5 percent per academic year. (Tuition increases)

Statement B: I must graduate in no more than two years. (Graduate two years)

Statement C: I have legal access to unlimited amounts of cash. (Unlimited cash)

Example: For a template such as “Either A or B.  Not A.  Therefore B” you would answer: “Either tuition increases, or I graduate in two years. Tuition will not increase.  Therefore, I will graduate in two years.” Do this for all five templates.


  • Either A, B, or C. Not C. So, A or B.
  • It is not the case that both A and B are true. So, either A is not true or B is not true.
  • Neither B nor C is true. So, B is false.
  • B unless C. Not B. So, C.
  • A only if B. A. Therefore, B.

Check the Logical Strength of each argument you have written. If it lacks logical strength, check the table Grammatically Equivalent Structures (in Chapter 8) to be sure you are interpreting the words correctly.

Your Answer:

Question 8

/ 2 pts
Transivity, reflexivity, and identity refer to what kind of reasoning?

Your Answer:

 Valid reasoning

Question 9

/ 5 pts
Using what you learned in Chapter 8 section Applying a Generalization, construct an argument proving that your Chamberlain major will place you in the category of healthcare worker.

Your Answer:


Question 10

5 / 5 pts

A local newspaper serving a mid-sized U.S. city whose population is about 300,000 surveyed 40 retail businesses. Of the businesses surveyed, 70% said they were planning little or no hiring of extra workers during the coming Christmas season. The newspaper concluded that consumer spending would likely be down for Christmas this year, since retailers were not anticipating extra holiday business. Evaluate the newspaper’s generalization about consumer holiday spending using what you have learned in Chapter 9, including the four questions suggested by the text:

  • Was the correct group sampled?
  • Were the data obtained in an effective way?
  • Were enough cases considered?
  • Was the sample representatively structured?

Your Answer:


10. Retail stores were among the appropriate groups to sample to determine consumer habits for the coming season, but not all Christmas buying is done in brick and mortar stores. (Section 9.1 Evaluating Generalizations) o We don’t know how the data was gathered. Did the stores volunteer the data? Who responded to the survey? Student answers should reflect that they considered how the survey was conducted. (Section 9.1 Evaluating Generalizations) o Response should reflect that size of sample is relative to the size of the population – in which case, just 40 retail businesses might be a small sample for a city of 300,000. Students may also respond based on rule of thumb for response category – in this case there are three possible responses – will hire, will not hire, and don’t know – which would require a sample size of 75. (Section 9.1 Evaluating Generalizations) o Response should show that student understands that insufficient information is given about the sample. Students should pose such questions as were the stores large or small? Where were they located? Were they specialty stores, or did they offer general merchandise? o Answer should demonstrate that student understand concept of diversity of the sample.

Question 11

5 / 5 pts
Go to Individual Exercises at the end of Chapter 9. Example 9 concludes that “the American people are opposed to the President’s health care reform legislation” (p. 190). Using the Four Tests for Evaluating Arguments found in Section 7.2 of the text, and keeping in mind all that you have learned from Chapters 7-9, evaluate the worthiness of Example 9, beginning with the Test of Logical Strength. Remember, if the argument fails a test, you do not need to go further. Give a detailed explanation in support of your evaluation. If the argument contains a fallacy, explain what you think the fallacy is.

Your Answer:

11. The argument fails the Test of Logical Strength. Student should recognize that neither premise offers evidence that “the American people” are opposed to the reform legislation. The argument contains the fallacy of erroneous or hasty generalization; the conclusion “the American people” goes far beyond the evidence, as does “opposed.” (Chapter 7; Section 9.2 Erroneous Generalization)

Question 12

/ 5 pts
What is a correlation? What is a statistically significant correlation?

Your Answer:


Question 13

/ 5 pts
Go to Individual Exercises at the end of Chapter 9. Go to Example 12. What test does this argument fail?  What fallacy does the argument contain?

Your Answer:

Quiz Score: 50 out of 50